REIGN DATASET: International Elections and Leaders



Developed by Curtis Bell, the Rulers, Elections, and Irregular Governance (REIGN) dataset describes political conditions in every country each and every month. These conditions include the tenures and personal characteristics of world leaders, the types of political institutions and political regimes in effect, election outcomes and election announcements, and irregular events like coups, coup attempts and other violent conflicts. The dataset covers more than 200 countries for each month they were independent, January 1950 to the present. REIGN was created by gathering original data, compiling other datasets on political conditions, reviewing their coding rules, and updating all information to the present.

Key Outputs:

  • Political conditions in every sovereign state are updated monthly to the present
  • Includes information about more than 2,300 individual leaders in 201 different countries
  • Provides new data about election announcements, delays, and outcomes
  • Includes information about current conditions and scheduled future events, making it ideal for event forecasting.


REIGN consists of over 130,000 leader-month observations. To download the data, as well as shorter lists of leaders, political systems, election events, and instances of irregular governance, please visit our GitHub repository.