Peace enforcement has become the subject of vigorous debate among both policy makers and academics working in the field of peace operations. However, there has been relatively little empirical examination of how this emerging strategy affects another key objective of contemporary peace operations: reducing violence against civilians. This policy brief discusses the policy implications of an initial study of peace enforcement and its impact on where actors use violence against civilians.
Governance systems that contribute to stable peace are characterized by having inclusive means of operating, participatory systems that bring the governed into the process of decision making, systems for accountability that ensure transparent and equitable operations, and enough systemic capacity that they are able to provide physical security and public goods supporting human development. When all of these elements are present, they form a mutually reinforcing virtuous cycle that reduces the risk of violence.
This issue paper explores the use of escorts by a state military asset as a model of contracted maritime security.
This issue paper explores the model of coastal state embarked personnel in different regions around the world.
Since 1945, there have been relatively few large interstate wars, especially compared to the preceding 30 years. The implications of this pattern, sometimes called “the Long Peace,” remain highly controversial. Is this an enduring trend toward peace? Or is it temporary, representing a fluctuation within an otherwise stable system of conflict? Answering this question has remained difficult because of substantial evidence supporting both perspectives and the enormously variable nature of war.
This issue paper explores the presence of uniformed military personnel embarked on a vessel with explicit approval of the Flag State.
This issue paper explores the model of private maritime security, a form of contracted maritime security that has emerged primarily off the Horn of Africa as a response to Somali piracy.
Civil society actors play an influential role in supporting human rights. While the literature on this topic tends to focus on human rights activity at the national level, civil society organizations (CSOs) also operate at the local level to advance human rights. The advancement of women’s rights is a particularly good example of this. In Davao City, Philippines, local women’s organizations campaigned for the passage of the Davao City Women and Development Code, a progressive piece of legislation that implemented the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).
Trends in urbanization and climate change are altering the nature of human settlements. As the number and impact of severe weather events increases, countries and cities are forced to cope. The limited governance mechanisms and financial constraints of many developing cities restrain capacity for dealing with complex urban problems. This paper describes how climate change is linked to urban fragility, crime, and violence, and emphasizes the important role of city governments in addressing peace and security challenges associated with climate migration.
This 2016 study represents the seventh year in the State of Maritime Piracy report series. Since the beginning of the series, the scope of research has expanded to include analysis of the economic and human costs of piracy in the Western Indian Ocean Region, West Africa, Asia, and — for the first time this year — Latin America and the Caribbean.